Vaccine FAQ

For the CDC's FAQ sheet regarding the vaccine's please click here

What is a vaccine?

A vaccine is a tiny weakened non-dangerous fragment of the organism and includes parts of the antigen. It is enough that our body can learn to build a specific antibody; then if the body encounters the real antigen later, as part of the real organism, it already knows how to defeat it. 

How do Vaccines help?

When an individual is vaccinated, they are likely to be protected against the targeted disease. Not all can be vaccinated. The more individuals who get vaccinated, they not only protect themselves, but they protect their community members as well. 

Who are the manufacturers of the COVID-19 Vaccine?

The two current manufacturers are Pfizer and Moderna. 

What is the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine?

Both Pfizer and Moderna boast and an impressive 95% effective rate!

How are vaccines administered?

Both Moderna and Pfizer are administered intramuscularly (into the muscle). 

Do both Moderna and Pfizer require two doses? 

 Yes, Moderna requires its second dose within 28 days of the first dose and Pfizer requires its second dose within 21 days of the first dose. 

When did Pfizer receive their Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)?

Pfizer received their EUA for their BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine on December 11th, 2020. 


Moderna has not yet received their EUA from the FDA, but it is going before the FDA panel on December 17th. 

What is Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)?

What is EUA?  An Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) gives the FDA authority to allow the use of unapproved medical products, or unapproved uses of approved medical products, to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases when certain criteria are met, including that there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives.  Learn more about EUAs from the FDA's website.

Will the COVID-19 vaccine give me COVID-19?

No. Neither the Pfizer nor Moderna COVID-19 vaccines do not contain SARS-COV2 and cannot give you COVID-19.

What are the ingredients of the COVID-19 Vaccines?

The Ingredients of the Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine are:

  • mRNA (Messenger Ribonucleic Acid)
  • Lipids (including ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate), 2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine, and cholesterol)
  • Potassium chloride
  • Monobasic potassium phosphate
  • Sodium chloride
  • Dibasic sodium phosphate dehydrate
  • Sucrose

The ingredients of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine are:

  • mRNA (Messenger Ribonucleic Acid)
  • Lipis (including SM-102, 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycero- 3-methoxypolyethylene glycol-2000 [PEG2000-DMG], cholesterol, and 1,2-distearoyl-sn- glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC])
  • Tromethamine
  • Tromethamine Hydrochloride
  • Acetic acid
  • Sodium acetate
  • Sucrose

The safety of COVID-19 vaccines will continue to be the nation's top priority.

The CDC and FDA are continuing to collect data on vaccine safety and efficacy after clinical trials. This includes real-world assessments of vaccine effectiveness on diverse populations, such as people from racial and ethnic minority groups disproportionately affected by COVID-19.

What makes mRNA vaccines safe?

mRNA vaccine development has long been studied and is proving to be effective. The technology utilized to make these vaccines has been developed over the last 20 years. Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have been studied for over a decade in influenza, Zika, rabies, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), and new cancer treatments. mRNA vaccines carry genetic material that helps our cells make a harmless piece of "spike protein," found on the surface of the SARS-CoV2 virus. The spike protein triggers an immune response to protect us from getting infected if the SARS-CoV-2 virus enters our bodies. mRNA vaccines do not change our DNA and cannot give someone COVID-19.

How do we know the vaccines are safe?

It is the job and priority of the U.S. vaccine safety system's job to make sure that all vaccines are as safe as possible. The new COVID-19 vaccines have been evaluated in tens of thousands of individuals, who volunteered to be vaccinated and to participate in clinical trials. These trials helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to determine the safety of the vaccine. 

Will problems be watched closely regarding the vaccine?

Yes, even though no safety issues arose during the clinical trial, the CDC and other federal partners will continue to monitor the new vaccines for serious side effects.

Is there a possibility that the effectiveness of the vaccines can be different after the clinical trials?

Many factors can affect the effectiveness in real-world situations. Those factors can include transportation, storage, and the administration of the vaccine. Vaccine affectivness can also be affected by the diffrences in the the underlying medical conditions of those being vaccinated.